The Convention on Biological Diversity was first signed by 150 heads of government at the Rio Earth Summit in 1992. Its main objectives are promoting sustainable development and conserving biological diversity, including plants, animals, microorganisms, and ecosystems.

The UN Biodiversity Conference COP15 and related meetings provided the global community with further opportunities to galvanize efforts at all levels to build a better future in harmony with nature by 2050. The conference led to the adoption of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework. This historic biodiversity agreement includes key global targets to protect and restore nature, ensure its sustainable use, and spur investments for a green global economy. Major goals and targets include: 

  • To restore 30% of degraded ecosystems on land and sea by 2030 and conserve 30% of the world’s marine and terrestrial areas.
  • To stop the extinction of known species and by 2050 reduce tenfold the extinction risk and rate of all species.
  • Reducing the risk from pesticides by at least 50% by 2030
  • Reducing the nutrients lost to the environment by at least 50% by 2030
  • To manage sustainably areas under agriculture, aquaculture, fisheries, and forestry and substantially increase agroecology and other biodiversity-friendly practices
  • Tackling climate change through nature-based solutions
  • Reduce the rate of introduction and establishment of invasive alien species by at least 50% by 2030
  • Green up urban spaces.

The Kunming-Montreal agreement will accelerate ambitious policies worldwide, allow businesses to take responsibility for biodiversity, target harmful subsidies, and increase the mobilization of finance for biodiversity by at least USD 200 billion per year by 2030. 

Furthermore, the new Global Biodiversity Framework Fund was established under the Global Environment Facility as part of the agreement. This international solidarity package is particularly for the most vulnerable and biodiverse countries.

Helene Duamelle

Climate Institute Intern - Helene is a senior at McGill University in Montreal, Canada

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